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CSS Properties: A Reference Guide

Reading time 6 min
Published Nov 22, 2018
Updated Jan 27, 2020


align-content Packs text lines to the left of the flex container
align-items Specifies the default alignment for items inside a specific flex container
align-self Specifies the alignment for a selected item in a flex container
all Resets all the properties to either inherited or initial value
animation A shorthand for the eight properties used for animation
animation-delay Specifies the delay before an animation starts playing
animation-direction Defines if the animation plays in reverse or alternate cycles
animation-duration Sets the duration of an animation cycle
animation-fill-mode Sets the style for an element while the animation is not active (finished or delayed)
animation-iteration-count Defines the number of times an animation should normally repeat
animation-name Specifies the name of the animation
animation-timing-function Specifies the duration of time for an element to transition from one set of styles to another


backface-visibility Defines if the element’s back is visible when it is not facing the screen
background A shorthand for the eight properties used for background
background-clip Specifies the area to which a background should extend
background-color Sets a background color
background-image Sets a background image for an element
background-origin Specifies where to position the background image
background-position Specifies the initial position of the background image
background-size Defines the size of the background image
border A shorthand for the three properties used for borders
border-bottom-left-radius Defines the rounded corners for an element
border-image Specifies the image to be used instead of a regular border
border-image-outset Specifies how much of the border image goes outside of the border box
border-image-repeat Specifies if the border image is rounded, repeated or stretched
border-image-slice Specifies how a border image should be sliced
border-image-source Specifies the path to access the image that you want to use as a border
border-image-width Specifies the border image width
border-radius A shorthand for the four properties used for border radius
border-style Defines the style of the border lines
border-top-left-radius Defines the shape of the top left corner border
border-top-right-radius Defines the shape of the top right corner border
border-bottom-left-radius Defines the shape of the bottom left corner border
border-bottom-right-radius Defines the shape of the bottom right corner border
box-shadow Adds a shadow to a box element
box-sizing Specifies whether the height and width values represent the content box or the border box


color Sets the color of text
column-count Specifies the number of columns an element should be divided into
column-gap Defines the gap between columns
column-rule A shorthand for the three properties used for column rules
column-rule-color Specifies the color of the column rule
column-rule-style Specifies the style of the column rule
column-rule-width Specifies the width of of the column rule
column-span Specifies how many columns an element should span across
column-width Specifies the optimal width of a column
columns A shorthand for column-width and column-count


display Specifies what kind of container the element will use


filter Defines visual effects for elements
flex A shorthand for flex-grow, flex-shrink and flex-basis
flex-basis Sets the initial length of a flex item
flex-direction Specifies the placement of flex items
flex-flow A shorthand for flex-direction and flex-wrap
flex-grow Specifies how much a flex item should grow when there's too much space in a flex container
flex-shrink Specifies how much a flex item should shrink when there's too little space in a flex container
font A shorthand for the seven properties used for fonts
font-family Defines what font an element will use when it has text in it
font-size Sets the default size of text characters
font-size-adjust Controls the sizing of lowercase letters
font-stretch Defines how wide or narrow the characters should be
font-style Defines the text font style
font-weight Defines how thick or thin the characters should be


hanging-punctuation Defines if punctuation marks should be displayed outside of the lines to keep them properly aligned


justify-content Aligns flex items along the horizontal axis of the container


line-height Defines the line height


margin Adds space around an element


nav-down Defines where the web page will navigate when the downwards arrow navigation key is pressed
nav-index Sets the sequence of navigation, or tabbing, order for elements
nav-left Defines where the web page will navigate when the left arrow navigation key is pressed
nav-right Defines where the web page will navigate when the right arrow navigation key is pressed
nav-up Defines where the web page will navigate when the upwards arrow navigation key is pressed


opacity Sets the opacity level for an element
order Defines the position of a specific flex item in the order of items in the same container
outline Draws a line outside the element
outline-offset Adds space between the outline and the border of the element
overflow Defines how the element behaves when the content cannot fit within its borders
overflow-x Defines how left and right sides of a container react to overflowing content
overflow-y Defines how top and bottom sides of a container react to overflowing content


padding Adds space around an element
perspective Defines how far away an object is to create a 3D perspective
perspective-origin Specifies where a 3D element originates from on the x– and y– axis
position Specifies how an element is positioned


resize Specifies whether a user can resize the element


tab-size Defines how much space the tab character is going to take up in the text
text-align Defines the horizontal text alignment inside of an element
text-align-last Defines the horizontal alignment for the last line of text
text-decoration A shorthand for the three properties used for text decoration lines
text-decoration-color Sets the color for all text decoration lines
text-decoration-line Specifies where text decoration line is displayed (below, above or through the text)
text-decoration-style Defines the style of text decoration line
text-emphasis A shorthand for text-emphasis-style and text-emphasis-color
text-overflow Defines how the presence of overflowed content that is not displayed will be shown to the user
text-shadow Adds a shadow to the text
text-transform Controls the capitalization of the text
transform Applies various transformations to an element
transition A shorthand for the four properties used for transition
transition-delay Specifies the transition starting point in time
transition-duration Specifies how long a transition takes to finish
transition-property Defines the CSS property that is affected by the transition effect
transition-timing-function Specifies the speed curve of a transition


vertical-align Specifies the vertical alignment for items inside an element


word-break Defines the line breaking rules for words when they reach the end of the line
word-wrap Allows breaking long words and wrapping them in the next line


z-index Defines a position of an element on the z-axis


:hover Defines how elements should be styled when they are hovered on
@font-face Allows you to use a font file and define the name of the font instead of having to use a web-safe font
@keyframes Allows specifying code for the animation
@media Specifies different style rules for different devices and/or media types