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Browser Specific CSS: Learn to Use Prefixes

Reading time 2 min
Published Aug 8, 2017
Updated Oct 2, 2019

TL;DR — Browser specific CSS prefixes are for adding support for new or experimental CSS properties.

Explaining the use of browser prefixes

You need to learn about browser specific CSS prefixes to make sure that non-standard or experimental properties work. Creators of browsers set support through these prefixes.

Currently, the CSS properties have different browser support. Some of them have issues in older versions and work only in modern browsers.

Here is a list of available browser prefixes for guaranteeing best CSS browser support:

  • -webkit-: a prefix to make sure that properties work on Chrome, Safari, nearly all iOS browsers, and newer versions of Opera.
  • -moz-: a prefix for Firefox.
  • -o-: a prefix for older versions of Opera.
  • -ms-: a prefix for Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge.

Full list of property browser support

Here is a table specifying the browser compatibility for CSS3 properties:

Property IE Firefox Chrome Safari Opera
align-content 11 28 21 9 12.1
align-items 11 20 21 9 12.1
align-self 11 20 21 9 12.1
all 27 37 24
animation 10 16 43 9 30
animation-delay 10 16 43 9 30
animation-direction 10 16 43 9 30
animation-duration 10 16 43 9 30
animation-fill-mode 10 16 43 4 15
animation-iteration-count 10 16 43 9 30
animation-name 10 16 43 9 30
animation-play-state 10 16 43 9 30
animation-timing-function 10 16 43 9 30
backface-visibility 10 16 36 9 23
background 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-attachment 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-blend-mode 30 35 7.1 22
background-clip 9 4 4 3 10.5
background-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-image 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-origin 9 4 4 3 10.5
background-position 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-repeat 4 1 1 1 3.5
background-size 9 4 4 4.1 10
border 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-bottom 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-bottom-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-bottom-left-radius 9 4 5 5 10.5
border-bottom-right-radius 9 4 5 5 10.5
border-bottom-style 5.5 1 1 1 9.2
border-bottom-width 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-collapse 5 1 1 1.2 4
border-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-image 11 15 16 6 15
border-image-outset 11 15 15 6 15
border-image-repeat 11 15 15 6 15
border-image-slice 11 15 15 6 15
border-image-source 11 15 15 6 15
border-image-width 11 13 15 6 15
border-left 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-left-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-left-style 5.5 1 1 1 9.2
border-left-width 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-radius 9 4 5 5 10.5
border-right 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-right-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-right-style 5.5 1 1 1 9.2
border-right-width 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-spacing 8 1 1 1 4
border-style 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-top 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-top-color 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-top-left-radius 9 4 5 5 10.5
border-top-right-radius 9 4 5 5 10.5
border-top-style 5.5 1 1 1 9.2
border-top-width 4 1 1 1 3.5
border-width 4 1 1 1 3.5
bottom 5 1 1 1 6
box-decoration-break 32 22 6.1 11.5
box-shadow 9 4 10 5.1 10.5
box-sizing 8 29 10 5.1 9.5
break-after 10 11.1
break-before 10 11.1
break-inside 10 11.1
caption-side 8 1 1 1 4
caret-color 53 57 44
@charset 1.5 2 4 9
clear 5 1 1 1 6
clip 8 1 1 1 7
color 3 1 1 1 3.5
column-count 10 52 50 9 37
column-fill 52
column-gap 10 52 50 9 37
column-rule 10 52 50 9 37
column-rule-color 10 52 50 9 37
column-rule-style 10 52 50 9 37
column-rule-width 10 52 50 9 37
column-span 10 50 9 37
column-width 10 52 50 9 37
columns 10 52 50 9 37
content 8 1 1 1 4
counter-increment 8 2 4 3.1 9.6
counter-reset 8 2 4 3.1 9.6
cursor 5.5 4 5 5 9.6
direction 5.5 1 2 1.3 9.2
display 8 3 4 3.1 7
empty-cells 8 1 1 1.2 4
filter 13 35 53 9.1 40
flex 11 28 29 9 17
flex-basis 11 28 29 9 17
flex-direction 11 28 29 9 17
flex-flow 11 28 29 9 17
flex-grow 11 28 29 9 17
flex-shrink 11 28 29 9 17
flex-wrap 11 28 29 9 17
float 4 1 1 1 7
font 4 1 1 1 3.5
@font-face 9 3.6 4 3 10
font-family 4 1 1 1 3.5
font-feature-settings 10 34 16 25
@font-feature-values 34
font-kerning 10 34 32 7
font-language-override 34
font-size 5.5 1 1 1 7
font-size-adjust 3
font-stretch 9 9 48 11 35
font-style 4 1 1 1 7
font-synthesis 34 10
font-variant 4 1 1 1 3.5
font-variant-alternates 34
font-variant-caps 34 52 39
font-variant-east-asian 34
font-variant-ligatures 10 34 34 7 19
font-variant-numeric 34 52 39
font-variant-position 34
font-weight 4 1 2 1.3 3.5
grid 52 57 10.1 44
grid-area 52 57 10.1 44
grid-auto-columns 10 52 57 10.1 44
grid-auto-flow 52 57 44
grid-auto-rows 10 52 57 44
grid-column 10 52 57 10.1 44
grid-column-end 10 52 57 44
grid-column-gap 52 57 44
grid-column-start 10 52 57 44
grid-gap 52 57 44
grid-row 10 52 57 10.1 44
grid-row-end 10 52 57 44
grid-row-gap 10 52 57 44
grid-row-start 10 52 57 44
grid-template 52 57 44
grid-template-areas 52 57 10.1 44
grid-template-columns 10 52 57 44
grid-template-rows 10 52 57 10.1 44
hanging-punctuation
height 4 1 1 1 7
hyphens 10 6 13 5.1
image-orientation 26
image-rendering 3.6 11.6
ime-mode 5 3
@import 5.5
isolation 36 41 7.1 30
justify-content 11 28 29 9 17
@keyframes 10 16 43 9 30
left 5.5 1 1 1 5
letter-spacing 4 1 1 1 3.5
line-break 5.5 1
line-height 4 1 1 1 7
list-style 4 1 1 1 7
list-style-image 4 1 1 1 7
list-style-position 4 1 1 1 3.5
list-style-type 4 1 1 1 3.5
margin 6 1 1 1 3.5
margin-bottom 6 1 1 1 3.5
margin-left 6 1 1 1 3.5
margin-right 6 1 1 1 3.5
margin-top 6 1 1 1 3.5
mask 53 1 4 15
mask-type 35 24 7 15
max-height 7 1 1 2 7
max-width 7 1 1 2 7
@media 9 3.5 21 4 9
min-height 7 1 1 2 4
min-width 7 1 1 2 4
mix-blend-mode 32 41 8
@namespace 9 1 1 1 8
object-fit 36 31 7.1 19
object-position 36 31 19
opacity 9 2 4 3.1 9
order 11 28 29 9 17
orphans 8 25 9.2
outline 8 1.5 1 1.2 7
outline-color 8 1.5 1 1.2 7
outline-offset 3.5 4 3 10.5
outline-style 8 1.5 1 1.2 7
outline-width 8 1.5 1 1.2 7
overflow 4 1 1 1 7
overflow-wrap 9 3.5 3 9.5
overflow-x 9 3.5 4 3 9.5
overflow-y 9 4 3 9.5
padding 4 1 1 1 3.5
padding-bottom 4 1 1 1 3.5
padding-left 4 1 1 1 3.5
padding-right 4 1 1 1 3.5
padding-top 4 1 1 1 3.5
@page 8 19 5 6
page-break-after 4 1 1 1.2 7
page-break-before 4 1 1 1.2 7
page-break-inside 8 19 1 1.3 7
perspective 10 16 36 9 23
perspective-origin 10 16 36 9 23
pointer-events 11 3.6 2 4 15
position 7 1 1 1.2 4
quotes 8 1.5 11 5.1 4
resize 5 4 4 15
right 5.5 1 1 1 5
scroll-behavior 36 61
shape-image-treshold 7
shape-margin 7
@supports 22 28 9 12.1
tab-size 4 21 6.1 15
table-layout 5 1 14 1 7
text-align 3 1 1 1 3.5
text-align-last 5.5 12 35
text-combine-upright 11 48 48 34
text-decoration 3 1 1 1 3.5
text-decoration-color 36 57 7.1 44
text-decoration-line 36 57 7.1 44
text-decoration-style 36 57 44
text-emphasis 46 25 7.1 15
text-emphasis-color 46 25 7.1 15
text-emphasis-position 46 25 7.1 15
text-emphasis-style 46 25 7.1 15
text-indent 3 1 1 1 3.5
text-justify 5.5
text-orientation 41 48 34
text-overflow 6 7 4 3.1 11
text-shadow 10 3.5 4 4 9.6
text-transform 4 1 1 1 7
text-underline-position 33
top 5 1 1 1 6
touch-action 11 52 36 23
transform 10 16 36 9 23
transform-origin 10 16 36 9 23
transform-style 11 16 36 9 23
transition 10 16 26 6.1 12.1
transition-delay 10 16 26 6.1 12.1
transition-duration 10 16 26 6.1 12.1
transition-property 10 16 26 6.1 12.1
transition-timing-function 10 16 26 6.1 12.1
unicode-bidi 5.5 1 2 1.3 9.2
user-select 10 2 54 3.1 41
vertical-align 4 1 1 1 4
@viewport 10 29 16
visibility 4 1 1 1 4
white-space 8 3.5 1 3 9.5
widows 8 25 9.2
width 4 1 1 1 3.5
will-change 36 36 9.1 24
word-break 5.5 15 4 3.1 15
word-spacing 6 1 1 1 3.5
word-wrap 5.5 3.5 4 3.1 10.5
writing-mode 9 41 8 5.1 15
z-index 4 3 1 1 4